Fermi, Enrico


Fermi, Enrico
(1901–1954)
   One of the finest theoretical physicists of the last century, Enrico Fermi was one of the fathers of the atomic bomb and a pioneer in the field of nuclear fission. Fermi was born in Rome and was educated at the universities of Pisa and Gottingen. In 1926, when he was still in his midtwenties, he returned to Italy to become professor of theoretical physics at the University of Rome. Initially, Fermi cooperated with the Fascist regime, accepting membership in the Accademia d’Italia. In 1938, Fermi was awarded the Nobel Prize in recognition of the lasting importance of his work in atomic structure and the nature of radioactivity. Benito Mussolini’s increasingly pro-Nazi policies had long been causing Fermi, whose wife was Jewish, great anguish and—after receiving the prize in Stockholm—he fled to the United States.
   In 1942, he was one of the group of scientists at the University of Chicago who produced the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. In the closing years of the war, he worked on Project Manhattan and played a crucial role in ensuring that the Allies, rather than Nazi Germany, won the race to build nuclear weapons. After the war, Fermi returned to the University of Chicago to pursue his research on the behavior of neutrons. He died in Chicago in 1954. The chemical element Fermium (Fm), which is produced artificially in thermonuclear explosions, was named in his honor.
   See also Racial Laws.

Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. . 2007.

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  • Fermi, Enrico — born Sept. 29, 1901, Rome, Italy died Nov. 28, 1954, Chicago, Ill., U.S. Italian born U.S. physicist. As a professor at the University of Rome, he began the work, later fully developed by P.A.M. Dirac, that led to Fermi Dirac statistics. He… …   Universalium

  • Fermi , Enrico — (1901–1954) Italian–American physicist Fermi was without doubt the greatest Italian scientist since Galileo and in the period 1925–50 was one of the most creative physicists in the world. Unusually in an age of ever growing specialization he… …   Scientists

  • Fermi, Enrico — ► (1901 54) Físico italiano. Descubridor del neutrino y de la posibilidad de producir elementos radiactivos por el bombardeo con neutrones (experimento y efecto de Fermi). Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1938. Posteriormente colaboró en la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Fermi,Enrico — Fer·mi (fĕrʹmē), Enrico. 1901 1954. Italian born American physicist. He won a 1938 Nobel Prize for his work on artificial radioactivity caused by neutron bombardment. In 1942, at the University of Chicago, he produced the first controlled nuclear …   Universalium

  • Fermi, Enrico — (1901 1954). Físico nacido en Italia, uno de los principales arquitectos de la Era Atómica. En 1934 bombardeó Uranio con neutrones de baja velocidad creando, sin saberlo, el elemento 94. Cuatro años más tarde obtuvo el premio Nobel de Física por… …   Diccionario ecologico

  • Enrico Fermi — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Enrico Fermi …   Wikipedia Español

  • Enrico Fermi — – Foto seines Los …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fermi (disambiguation) — Enrico Fermi was an Italian physicist, all of the following is named after him.In physics: * Fermi, a unit of length in particle physics equivalent to the femtometre * Fermi s interaction * Fermi constant, constant that gives the strength of… …   Wikipedia

  • fermi — [ fɛrmi ] n. m. • 1968; de Fermi, n. pr. (→ fermion) ♦ Phys. Unité de longueur valant un milliardième de micromètre. ● fermi nom masculin (de Fermi, nom propre) Nom parfois donné, en microphysique, au femtomètre (1 fm = 10−15 m). Fermi (Enrico)… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Fermi — (izg. férmi), Enrico (1901 1954) DEFINICIJA talijanski fizičar, značajna otkrića na području nuklearne fizike; od 1939. u SAD u gdje je pod njegovom kontrolom provedena prva nuklearna lančana reakcija; Nobelova nagrada 1938 …   Hrvatski jezični portal


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